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The effect of consuming different amounts of whey protein on appetite and energy intake was investigated in two separate studies using randomised, crossover designs. Healthy-weight men and women (range: BMI 190-250kg/m 2, age 194-404 years) consumed one of four 400ml liquid preloads, followed by an ad libitum test meal 90min later. In study 1, preloads were 1675kJ with 125, 25 or 50% of energy from protein, and in study 2, preloads were 1047kJ with 10, 20 or 40% energy from protein. Flavoured water was used as the control in both the studies. Appetite ratings were collected immediately before 30, 60 and 90min after consuming the preloads; and immediately, 30 and 60min after consuming the test meal. In study 1, energy intake following the control preload (4136 (sem 337)kJ) was significantly higher than each of the 125% (3520 (sem 296)kJ), 25% (3384 (sem 265)kJ) and 50% (2853 (sem 244)kJ) protein preloads (P<005). Intake after the 125% preload was significantly higher than following 25 and 50% preloads (P<005). In study 2, energy intake following the control preload (4801 (sem 325)kJ) was higher than following the 10% (4205 (sem 310)kJ), 20% (3988 (sem 250)kJ) and 40% (3801 (sem 245)kJ) protein preloads (P<005). There were no differences in subjective appetite ratings between preloads in either study. These findings indicate a dose-response effect of protein content of the preload on energy intake at a subsequent meal. Copyright © The Authors 2010.

Original publication




Journal article


British Journal of Nutrition

Publication Date





1858 - 1867