Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

OBJECTIVE: The longitudinal associations between a dietary pattern (DP) and cardiometabolic risk factors and cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence were investigated in a cohort of adults with severe obesity. METHODS: The analysis included 2,037 individuals with severe obesity (>34 and >38 kg/m(2) for men and women, respectively) from the Swedish Obese Subjects study repeatedly followed up for 10 years. Reduced rank regression was used to identify a DP characterized by dietary energy density, saturated fat intake, and fiber density. Mixed models examined relationships between repeated measures of DP z-scores and cardiometabolic risk factors. Cox proportional hazards models assessed relationships between DP scores and CVD incidence. RESULTS: An energy-dense, high-saturated-fat, and low-fiber DP was derived. A one-unit increase in the DP z-score between follow-ups was associated with an increase in weight [β (SE)] (1.71 ± 0.10 kg), waist circumference (1.49 ± 0.07 cm), BMI (0.60 ± 0.34 kg/m2), serum cholesterol (0.06 ± 0.01 mmol/l), and serum insulin (1.22 ± 0.17 mmol/l; all P < 0.0001), as well as in serum triglycerides (0.05 ± 0.02 mmol/l; P < 0.05), systolic blood pressure (1.05 ± 0.27 mmHg; P < 0.001), and diastolic blood pressure (0.55 ± 0.16 mmHg; P < 0.05). No significant association was observed between repeated measures of the DP z-scores and CVD incidence (HR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.83-1.12). CONCLUSIONS: An energy-dense, high-saturated-fat, and low-fiber DP was longitudinally associated with increases in cardiometabolic risk factors in severe obesity but not with CVD incidence.

Original publication




Journal article


Obesity (Silver Spring)

Publication Date





1063 - 1070


Adult, Aged, Body Mass Index, Cardiovascular Diseases, Cohort Studies, Comorbidity, Feeding Behavior, Female, Health Behavior, Humans, Hypertension, Incidence, Insulin Resistance, Lipids, Longitudinal Studies, Male, Metabolic Syndrome, Middle Aged, Obesity, Morbid, Risk Factors, Sweden, Waist Circumference