Dietary patterns, cardiometabolic risk factors, and the incidence of cardiovascular disease in severe obesity.
Johns DJ., Lindroos AK., Jebb SA., Sjöström L., Carlsson LM., Ambrosini GL.
OBJECTIVE: The longitudinal associations between a dietary pattern (DP) and cardiometabolic risk factors and cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence were investigated in a cohort of adults with severe obesity. METHODS: The analysis included 2,037 individuals with severe obesity (>34 and >38 kg/m(2) for men and women, respectively) from the Swedish Obese Subjects study repeatedly followed up for 10 years. Reduced rank regression was used to identify a DP characterized by dietary energy density, saturated fat intake, and fiber density. Mixed models examined relationships between repeated measures of DP z-scores and cardiometabolic risk factors. Cox proportional hazards models assessed relationships between DP scores and CVD incidence. RESULTS: An energy-dense, high-saturated-fat, and low-fiber DP was derived. A one-unit increase in the DP z-score between follow-ups was associated with an increase in weight [β (SE)] (1.71 ± 0.10 kg), waist circumference (1.49 ± 0.07 cm), BMI (0.60 ± 0.34 kg/m2), serum cholesterol (0.06 ± 0.01 mmol/l), and serum insulin (1.22 ± 0.17 mmol/l; all P < 0.0001), as well as in serum triglycerides (0.05 ± 0.02 mmol/l; P < 0.05), systolic blood pressure (1.05 ± 0.27 mmHg; P < 0.001), and diastolic blood pressure (0.55 ± 0.16 mmHg; P < 0.05). No significant association was observed between repeated measures of the DP z-scores and CVD incidence (HR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.83-1.12). CONCLUSIONS: An energy-dense, high-saturated-fat, and low-fiber DP was longitudinally associated with increases in cardiometabolic risk factors in severe obesity but not with CVD incidence.