Estimating usual intakes mainly affects the micronutrient distribution among infants, toddlers and pre-schoolers from the 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey
Piernas C., Miles DR., Deming DM., Reidy KC., Popkin BM.
© 2015 The Authors. Objective To compare estimates from one day with usual intake estimates to evaluate how the adjustment for within-person variability affected nutrient intake and adequacy in Mexican children. Design In order to obtain usual nutrient intakes, the National Cancer Institute's method was used to correct the first 24 h dietary recall collected in the entire sample (n 2045) with a second 24 h recall collected in a sub-sample (n 178). We computed estimates of one-day and usual intakes of total energy, fat, Fe, Zn and Na. Setting 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey. Subjects A total of 2045 children were included: 0-5·9 months old (n 182), 6-11·9 months old (n 228), 12-23·9 months old (n 537) and 24-47·9 months old (n 1098). From these, 178 provided an additional dietary recall. Results Although we found small or no differences in energy intake (kJ/d and kcal/d) between one-day v. usual intake means, the prevalence of inadequate and excessive energy intake decreased somewhat when using measures of usual intake relative to one day. Mean fat intake (g/d) was not different between one-day and usual intake among children > 6 months old, but the prevalence of inadequate and excessive fat intake was overestimated among toddlers and pre-schoolers when using one-day intake (P < 0·05). Compared with usual intake, estimates from one day yielded overestimated prevalences of inadequate micronutrient intakes but underestimated prevalences of excessive intakes among children aged > 6 months. Conclusions There was overall low variability in energy and fat intakes but higher for micronutrients. Because the usual intake distributions are narrower, the prevalence of inadequate/excessive intakes may be biased when estimating nutrient adequacy if one day of data is used.