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© 2015 Elsevier B.V. Background and aims: Energy dense, high fat, low fibre diets may contribute to obesity in young people, however their relationships with other cardiometabolic risk factors are unclear. We examined associations between an 'energy-dense, high-fat and low-fibre' dietary pattern (DP) and cardiometabolic risk factors, and the tracking of this DP in adolescence. Methods and results: Data was sourced from participants in the Western Australian Pregnancy (Raine) Cohort Study. At 14 and 17y, dietary intake, anthropometric and biochemical data were measured and z-scores for an 'energy dense, high fat and low fibre' DP were estimated using reduced rank regression (RRR). Associations between DP z-scores and cardiometabolic risk factors were examined using regression models. Tracking of DP z-scores was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient.A 1 SD unit increase in DP z-score between 14 and 17y was associated with a 20% greater odds of high metabolic risk (95% CI: 1.01, 1.41) and a 0.04mmol/L higher fasting glucose in boys (95% CI: 0.01, 0.08); a 28% greater odds of a high-waist circumference (95% CI: 1.00, 1.63) in girls. An increase of 3% and 4% was observed for insulin and HOMA (95% CI: 1%, 7%), respectively, in boys and girls, for every 1 SD increase in DP z-score and independently of BMI. The DP showed moderate tracking between 14 and 17y of age (. r=0.51 for boys, r=0.45 for girls). Conclusion: An 'energy dense, high fat, low fibre' DP is positively associated with cardiometabolic risk factors and tends to persist throughout adolescence.

Original publication




Journal article


Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases

Publication Date





643 - 650