The prediction of suicide in severe mental illness: development and validation of a clinical prediction rule (OxMIS)
Fazel S., Wolf A., Larsson H., Mallett S., Fanshawe TR.
© 2019, The Author(s). Assessment of suicide risk in individuals with severe mental illness is currently inconsistent, and based on clinical decision-making with or without tools developed for other purposes. We aimed to develop and validate a predictive model for suicide using data from linked population-based registers in individuals with severe mental illness. A national cohort of 75,158 Swedish individuals aged 15–65 with a diagnosis of severe mental illness (schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, and bipolar disorder) with 574,018 clinical patient episodes between 2001 and 2008, split into development (58,771 patients, 494 suicides) and external validation (16,387 patients, 139 suicides) samples. A multivariable derivation model was developed to determine the strength of pre-specified routinely collected socio-demographic and clinical risk factors, and then tested in external validation. We measured discrimination and calibration for prediction of suicide at 1 year using specified risk cut-offs. A 17-item clinical risk prediction model for suicide was developed and showed moderately good measures of discrimination (c-index 0.71) and calibration. For risk of suicide at 1 year, using a pre-specified 1% cut-off, sensitivity was 55% (95% confidence interval [CI] 47–63%) and specificity was 75% (95% CI 74–75%). Positive and negative predictive values were 2% and 99%, respectively. The model was used to generate a simple freely available web-based probability-based risk calculator (Oxford Mental Illness and Suicide tool or OxMIS) without categorical cut-offs. A scalable prediction score for suicide in individuals with severe mental illness is feasible. If validated in other samples and linked to effective interventions, using a probability score may assist clinical decision-making.